Classical homeopathy according to Hahnemann (1811) orients itself based on the so-called ‘drug picture’ to determine the appropriate remedy. It claims that symptoms of disease behave reciprocally towards those symptoms which the healthy test person develops after the intake of a mother tincture or a diluted substance (potency.) The principle of action which can be derived thereof is known as the Simile Principle (Similia similibus curentur = Likes may be cured by likes.) The clinical syndrome occurring in a patient can be overcome by an artificially induced, similar disease. The Aequalia Principle (Isopathy = the condition may be healed by the causative substance) can also be applied with potentised allopathic substances or partly with nosode preparations in anti-homotoxic medicine and/or with vaccines in conventional medicine.
Classical homoeopathy works with single remedies which are only partly truly single- constituent remedies, (e.g., sulphur, mercury, arsenic, etc.), or which are otherwise botanical extractions containing a highly complex mixture of numerous constituents. Repertories (lists of symptoms produced by drugs) facilitate the selection of the most appropriate remedy in homoeopathy.
Anti-homotoxic medicine usually pursues an indication-oriented approach. The anti- homotoxic remedies predominantly represent mixtures of substances of low to middle potencies. Through practical application in homoeopathy it became obvious that the use of concentrated or poisonous tinctures could damage the patient and that, therefore, they could only be used in homoeopathic dilutions, i.e., potencies. This practice was scientifically supported by Rudolf Arndt (psychiatrist, 1835-1900) and Hugo Schulz (pharmacologist, 1853- 1932) through a quantitative differentiation of the medicinal effect on bio-systems and still applies as the Arndt-Schulz Principle. It states:
weak stimuli stimulate the life functions (retro-action of homoeopathic preparations)
moderately strong stimuli accelerate them
strong stimuli act as inhibitors
the strongest stimuli suspend the life functions
Since several tissue-incompatible substances are usually involved during the development of a disease, the simultaneous use of several potentised ”antitoxins“, as present in the anti- homotoxic preparations, is justified.
Against the background of the conflicting medicinal and therapeutic concepts promulgated in humoral pathology, cellular pathology, molecular pathology, and related fields including modern cybernetics, the German physician Dr. Hans-Heinrich Reckeweg formulated Homotoxicology in 1952. This conception was developed from homoeopathy for the purpose of providing a holistic perspective on the synthesis of medical science.
Reckeweg formulated an essential tenet of Homotoxicology, as follows:
”According to Homotoxicology all of those processes, syndromes, and manifestations, which we designate as diseases, are the expression thereof that the body is combating poisons and that it wants to neutralize and excrete these poisons. The body either wins or loses the fight thereby. Those processes, which we designate as diseases, are always biological, that is natural teleological processes, which serve poison defence and detoxification.“
Referring to conventional medical indications connects anti-homotoxic medicine with allopathy, while therapy with potentised substances unites it to homoeopathy. Anti-homotoxic medicine is the connecting link between allopathic medicine and homoeopathy.
The higher the concentration, the stronger the effect (dose-effect relation; increase of side effects).
Increase of the effect with decreasing concentration (effect optimum not definable). Anti-homotoxic medicine:
Connecting link between conventional medicine and homoeopathy.
Homotoxins are all of those substances (chemical/ biochemical) and non-material influences (physical, psychical), which can cause ill health in humans. Their appearance results in regulation disorders in the organism. Every illness is due therefore to the effects of homotoxins. Homotoxins can be introduced from the exterior (exogenic homotoxins) or originate in the body itself (endogenic homotoxins).
These are understood as chemical reaction products from compounds of homotoxins with each other or with other substances (e.g., products of metabolism) which neutralize the poisonous property of the homotoxins. The best example thereof is the liver, in whose cells homotoxins and metabolic products are united to detoxify the organism.
Deposits of homotoxins with endogenic substances, which cannot be eliminated via excretion or irritation, are designated as ”residual poisons“ (retoxins). The most important example thereof is the non-enzymatic glucosilisation of tissues and cell surfaces in case of glucose excess, as with, among others, latent diabetes mellitus.
Homotoxicosis – The Concept of Disease in Homotoxicology
Homotoxicosis is a non-physiological condition which arises after reaction of a homotoxin on cells and tissues. A homotoxicosis occurs as a humoral or cellular appearance and can be followed by morphological changes on tissues. The homotoxicosis is named after the homotoxin which triggers it. The homotoxicosis leads to defensive measures of the organism whose goal is to eliminate the homotoxins and to restore the physiological conditions when possible.
The Ground Regulation
This refers to the local regulation possibilities of the ground system along with its superimposed nervous, hormonal, and humoral regulation systems. The ground system is composed of the ground substance plus cellular, humoral, and nervous components. The ground substance (extracellular matrix) is formed of highly polymerised sugars (proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans) plus structural and meshing glycoproteins.
The Phase theory
The Six-Phase-Table illustrates the chronological courses of various symptoms of a disease within the framework of the ground regulation. The single phases are transient into each other and demonstrate typical phasal indicating signs. The Six- Phase-Table is subdivided into three sections (humoral phases, matrix phases, cellular phases), each of which is subdivided into 2 phases. Two phases are allocated to the excretion principle (phases 1 + 2), the deposition principle (phases 3 + 4), and the degeneration and/or deterioration principle (phases 5 + 6). The Biological Division runs within the matrix phases.
Fig. 2: The Six-Phase-Table
The humoral phases
In the humoral phases the intracellular systems are not disturbed. The defence system is intact and can excrete the homotoxins via various paths.
This phase contains manifestations of increased physiological excretion mechanisms.
Illnesses of this phase are marked by an exudative inflammation, which enables an accelerated excretion of toxins from the body.
The matrix phases
In these phases the homotoxins are deposited at first in the mesh of the extracellular matrix. During the further course its structural components as well as functions are altered. In case of continuing illness increasing stress and damage of the intracellular structures result.
In this phase the excretion mechanisms of the body are overworked and toxins are deposited in the matrix. This phase often progresses with few symptoms.
Diseases in this phase are characterized by the presence phase of toxins which become a part of the connective tissue and the matrix, along with changes in the structural com- ponents as well as their functions. The typically increasingly severe symptoms and signs of this phase demonstrate damage of the organ cells.
The cellular phases
During the cellular phases of a disease, cell systems are increasingly destroyed. The defence system is no longer able to excrete the toxins out of the cells or out of the matrix by virtue of its own strength. Typical for these phases is the so-called regulation rigidity.
During this phase, courses of disease cause serious damage, and destruction of larger cell groups of an organ takes place.
Dedifferentiation (neoplasm) Phase
Diseases of this phase are characterized by the development of undifferentiated, non-specialized cell forms. Malignant diseases stand at the end of this phase.
The Biological Division refers to the imaginary boundary between the deposition and impregnation phases. It demarcates the pure deposition in the matrix from the integration of toxins into its structural components. Whereas a simple excretion of the toxins is possible during the deposition phase, structural and functional changes are found in the impregnation phase. Thus the spontaneous endogenic excretion of the homotoxins is impeded.
The term ”vicariation“ refers to the transition of the indicating signs of an illness within one phase to another organ system, or the change of the fundamental symptoms and signs into another phase, with or without a change of the organ system.
Progressive vicariation: Progressive vicariation refers to an aggravation of the total symptoms and signs of illness.
Regressive vicariation: Regressive vicariation refers to an improvement of the total symptoms and signs of an illness.
The different components of the anti-homotoxic preparations activate the defense system of the body. The immune system with its memory and regulation systems can be compared to the spiritual-mental self, the ego. The deposition phase and more frequently the impregnation phase are characterized by immunological processes such as chronic inﬂammation and auto-aggression. The humoral area (via immunoglobulins from B-lymphocytes) and the cellular area (T-cells, granulocytes, macrophages) still counterbalance each other in this case. A regressive vicariation is still possible in these matrix phases.
Herein lies a great opportunity for anti-homotoxic medicine. The immunological bystander reaction represents a theory of anti-homotoxic therapy for inﬂammatory illnesses. It is based on low dose antigen reactions, particularly of substance combinations in the range of 1X to 14X, with 4X to 8X appearing to be the most favorable. The bystander effect cannot be triggered at higher potencies. Experience shows that higher potencies as well as trace elements and intermediary catalysts are able to stimulate the ground regulation. (Functional circle of anti-homotoxic therapy; Heine 1997.) It is signiﬁcant that for the potency ranges 3X to 12X, a considerable difference exists in the activation of speciﬁc enzyme systems compared to substances conventionally diluted to the same concentration. The dose-action relationship of potentized substances compared to diluted substances demonstrates a non-linear relationship.
Every organism requires energy to maintain its vital functions which must be continuously provided by the metabolism. Disorders of the energy metabolism, therefore, impair the energy supply which is controlled by endogenic regulation. The organism is an energetically open system for which suitable energy, in the form of food, must be supplied and unsuitable energy must be evacuated. In this manner an unstable state of order can be maintained, far from a thermodynamic balance, for a longer period of time; a “life- span.” All reactions of the organism proceed at relatively low temperatures in the aqueous milieu and must be accelerated, i.e., catalyzed. The prerequisite for an effective catalysis is suitable substrates between and in the cells. Because the extracellular space is located in front of the cells, the cells can only react as they have been informed via the extracellular space. The dynamic structure of the extracellular space and its regulation (ground regulation) have therefore a decisive impact on the effectiveness of the extracellular and intracellular catalysts. This depends on the structure of the ground substance (extracellular matrix or simply, matrix). It forms in all cells and cell groups a molecular sieve of matrix components such as highly polymerized sugar protein complexes and sugar complexes (proteoglycans-glycosaminoglycans, PG/GAG’s), structural proteins (collagen, elastin) and meshing glycoproteins (e.g., ﬁbronectin) (Figure 2). As the PG/GAG’s are electro-negatively charged, they are able to bind water and exchange ions as well. They are therefore the guarantors for isoiony, isoosmy and isotony in the matrix.
ground substance, terminal autonomic axons, connective tissue cells (mast cells, defense cells, ﬁbroblasts, etc.) and parenchyma cells. Epithelial and endothelial cell groups rest on a basal membrane which mediates to the ground substance. Every cell surface carries a glycoprotein and glycolipid ﬁlm connected to the ground substance (dotted line), to which the histocompatibility complexes (MHC) also belong. The ground substance is connected to the endocrine system via the capillary system and via the axons to the central nervous system. The ﬁbroblast is the metabolically active center (Heine, 1997.)
The connection to the central nervous system is conducted via the autonomic nerve ﬁbers blindly ending in the matrix. The connection to the system of endocrine glands (pituitary gland, thyroid gland, suprarenal gland, etc.) is conducted via the capillary system which permeates the matrix. Both systems are connected to each other in the brainstem and to superimposed centers of the brain. In this manner, the matrix is regulated not only on site but also under the inﬂuence of superimposed control areas. The regulation center in the matrix is the ﬁbroblast (corresponding to the glia cell in the central nervous system). It reacts immediately to all incoming information (hormones, neural substances, metabolites, catabolites, pH value changes, etc.) with a synthesis of ‘good’ or ‘bad’ information. In this manner every surplus or deﬁcit can lead in certain circumstances to detrimental consequences for the total system depending individually on a vicious cycle.
It is important to note that due to the sieve-like as well as connective properties of the PG/ GAGs, the danger of damaging the matrix also exists through the development of a latent tissue acidity, increase of free radicals and the activation of the proteolytic system turning into a pro-inﬂammatory situation. Ultimately, damage of all humoral and cellular elements may arise progressing at ﬁrst from persistent feelings of ill health to chronic disease and malignant processes (Heine, 1997.)
Homotoxicological remedies have the ability to achieve immunomodulation. This immunomodulation is achieved via ingredients in the remedies used; these remedies contain an amino acid sequence in dilution, therefore remedies with plant extracts, suis organ extracts, nosodes and animal venoms are able to immunomodulate. The critical dilution of the ingredients from 1X-14X, furthermore gives the remedies the ability to induce the immunological bystander reaction, primarily in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) and less so in the peripheral tissues.
The normal immune response depends, apart from the non-speciﬁc immune response via the phagocytes, complement and acute phase proteins, on the speciﬁc immune response, mediated by the lymphocytes and their products.
The CD4, CD8 and the family of Large Granular Lymphocytes (Including the Natural Killer Cells) forms part of this normal arm of the immune response. The CD4 and CD8 cells need to be activated by an Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) which will present the antigen by processing it either via the Major Histocompatibility Complex I or II (MHC I or II) or via other molecules such as the CD1 molecule in the intestinal epithelial cell. MHC I will activate CD8 cytotoxic cells, MHC II the CD4 helper cells and CD1 from the Intestinal Epithelial Cells (IECs) will activate CD8 suppressor cells.
CD4 cells have several subclasses of functional cells, namely Th1, Th2, Th3 and also Th4 cells. Th1 cells secrete the cytokines TNF and Interferon gamma and will activate lymphocytes and products which have signiﬁcance within cellular immunity. Under pathological conditions, Th1 cells will cause diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis, Inﬂammatory bowel disease and other organ related autoimmune diseases such as Multiple sclerosis. It is also responsible for the general inﬂammatory processes we see in the tissues in general. Th2 cells on the other hand secrete the cytokines IL-4, 10, 5, and 13 and have signiﬁcance within antibody formation. Th2 cells are also the pathway through which allergic phenomena are mediated in pathological circumstances. In the normal organism, there is a constant oscillation between Th0, Th1 and Th2 cells and this oscillation has a chronobiology similar to most of our other regulatory systems. In factTh1/Th2 oscillation is under the control of the neuroendocrine system, and will follow its diurnal rhythm. Another mechanism which achieves this Th1/Th2 oscillation is the inhibitory effect the Th1 and Th2 secreted cytokines will have on each other. Another cell which can also modulate the normal oscillation is the Th3 cell.
This cell secretes the cytokine Transforming Growth Factor beta, (TGF-ß) and can modulate the balance between Th1/Th2. In addition the Th3 cell and certain CD8 suppressor cells are most likely responsible for the development of our immune tolerance to foods. It seems that the size of the antigen which is presented by the APC will determine whether it will generate a Th1, Th2 or Th3 response. According to Heine, any substance in the dilution from 1X-14X will have the effect of generating a Th3 response, and to a lesser extent, a Th2 response.
This refers, as its name implies, to the induction of cells by a relative non-toxic antigen which will then have an effect on a process such as an inﬂammation which was started by another antigen somewhere else in the body. Let’s look at the bystander reaction (Figure 3).
In order to initiate the bystander reaction we need a small dose of antigen, or a remedy containing plant extract, suis organ extract, animal venom or a nosode, each in a speciﬁc dilution. These diluted substances are then taken up by the APC’s in the gut lining which will present them as an antigen to the lymphocytes in the GALT via the MCH or the CD1 binding mentioned above. The processed antigen is then displayed as a motif on the outside of the APC. There will be a motif for each of the ingredients, thus if we give Traumeel, one for Arnica, one for Bellis perennis, etc., or if we give Hepar compositum, one for Hepar Suis, one for Colon Suis and so forth.
After being presented with the motifs on the APC, prolymphocytes of the Th3 type are activated due to the size of the motif (5-15 amino acids), and will differentiate into a population of Th3 cells. There will be a Th3 type cell for each of the motifs presented, thus one for Arnica, Bellis perennis and so forth.
These lymphocytes then migrate to the lymph nodes in the Peyer’s patches and proliferate into billions of copies. This process is called cloning.
The millions of cloned Th3 cells will then through chemotaxis ﬁnd the inﬂammation caused by Th1, Th2 and Th4 lymphocytes and suppress them, thereby restoring the balance and normal oscillation between Th1/Th2 cells. Here the law of similars is at work, as each Th3 cell for Arnica or Bellis perennis for instance, will ﬁnd the corresponding Th1/Th2 cell which looks similar to its motif and suppress it.
The immunological bystander reaction serves as a model for the working mechanism of immunomodulatory remedies which, through a non-toxic substance in a speciﬁc dilution can induce a regulatory cell, the Th3 cell . This regulatory cell, while developed at another site, and acting as an innocent bystander can bring about a balance in the immune system, by down-regulating an inﬂammatory process started by another noxious homotoxin remote from its own activation. The Th3 cell acts as a fulcrum on which the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells rests (Figure 4).
This also conﬁrms one of the ways which Dr. Reckeweg postulated as to how homotoxicological remedies work. He theorized that by giving a non-toxic substance the defense system of the body is activated through another pathway in order to bring about homeostasis.
Homotoxicological medicines have been developed to serve the very speciﬁc purpose of restoring regulation in the organism. Although they may appear as being complex homeopathic compositions, they in fact differ in a number of ways from the normal complex prescription, in that they incorporate various dilutions of remedies, as well as potentized catalysts, allopathics and vitamins, for instance. As our knowledge of molecular biology increases we can witness the deep-acting function of these combinations on the body. We classify the remedies according to the origin of the remedy, the combination, as well as the phase in which they will be useful.
The remedies are made up of four pharmacological groups (PG’s):
The ﬁrst group is the plant materials (PPG’s). Depending on the dilution, these could have either the dominant, secondary or complementary action in the remedy.
The second group is the mineral pharmacological group or MPG’s. In the potency they mostly appear in the remedies, they act as functional regulators, modiﬁers and stimulators.
The third group is unique to Homotoxicology, and is made up of the catalysts (CPG’s). These are mostly in the 6X-10X dilution range, and will act as modulators and regulators. The CPG’s may contain potentized elements of the Krebs cycle, and carrier enzymes of the respiratory chain such as Ubichinon (Coenzyme Q10). Hormones in potentized form, as levothyroxin and cortisone, can also act as catalysts. Certain other substances including Procainum, Glyoxal and Methyl glyoxal will also stimulate the intermediary metabolism, and are thus classiﬁed as catalysts.
The fourth group is the immunomodulators (IPG’s). Potentized Suis organ extracts, nosodes and also venoms of animal origin act as immunomodulators. These substances will induce Th3 cells and through the immunological bystander reaction will be able to modulate the immune response.
Homotoxicological remedies may also be classiﬁed according to the way the above is combined. Five groups stand out for use in the United States:
The Indication-based Heel remedies: These are primarily composed of PPG’s and MPG’s and are often indication-based, as, for example, Traumeel and Vertigoheel. They can be used for acute as well as chronic conditions, and depending on the chronicity, can be used from days to weeks to months.
The Homaccords: These are also primarily composed of PPG’s and MPG’s such as Nux vomica-Homaccord (PPG’s) or Phosphor-Homaccord (PPG’s and MPG’s), which are typically present in potency chords, for instance 3X, 6X, 10X, 30X, 200X, and 1000X. The Homaccords are often organotropic, thus they will support the function of a speciﬁc organ, and due to the potency chord will have a far-reaching action on the organ. They are often used for a period of time, 12 weeks for instance. Due to their potency chords, they often will not give a ﬁrst aggravation seen by other homeopathic remedies.
The Injeels, or Heel remedies: These remedies are like a combination of the indication- based Heel remedy and a Homaccord, and are often directed at treating a speciﬁc indication affecting an organ system. The individual components which are normally PPG’s and MPG’s also come in shorter potency chords than the above, for instance, in potency chords to 10X and 30X.
The Catalysts: These contain substances of the CPG’s mentioned above occasionally with added potentized vitamins and other co-factors of the intermediary metabolism. The catalysts which come in a compositum also may contain PPG’s, MPG’s, as well as IPG’s. They are added as soon as a condition reaches the matrix phases, in other words, once it affects the ground regulation system, and are employed in cycles, as the compositae.
The Compositae: These remedies have been developed as the ultimate regulators and modulators. They often contain all four PG’s, namely PPG, MPG, CPG and IPG, and therefore lend themselves to treatment of all conditions, but especially to those in the matrix and cellular phases. Sometimes, however, they are also employed in the humoral phases, on an Auto-regulatory system level, like Echinacea compositum, which is an excellent remedy to use in the inﬂammatory phase. Towards the right of the biological division, they are employed in cycles of ﬁve to six weeks, and the result is then assessed as to whether they should be repeated or not. The compositae come in oral vials, and many are also available in oral tablets.
Disease does not arrive on the cellular level overnight. It will start off as dysregulation of the Auto-regulatory system (ARS) and then move to the matrix, or Ground regulation level, (GRS) and lastly will manifest on the cellular level. This will correspond to the humoral, matrix and cellular phases of the six-phase table.
When disease is in the humoral phases, it will often be enough to only employ remedies of the PPG and MPG group, and therefore most Homaccords, Heel remedies and Indication-based Heel remedies will sufﬁce to restore self-regulation in a patient. However, when disease reaches the Ground regulation level, we need to add a catalyst, and when it approaches the cellular level, we need to mostly add an IPG as well. It is important to note that there are Indication-based Heel remedies other than a compositum, for example Gripp-Heel, which contains animal venom, (Lachesis) and therefore will act as an immunomodulator as well. In Lymphomyosot there is a catalyst (Levothyroxin) and an immunomodulator (Aranea diadema). The latter can thus be employed in all the phases of the six-phase table, whereas a remedy such as Engystol (Vincetoxinum and Sulfur, thus PPG, and MPG), will not be sufﬁcient on its own in the matrix and cellular phases. We will then have to add a CPG such as Coenzyme compositum, and for instance, a compositum containing PPG’s, MPG’S, CPG’s and an IPG in some form.
The choice of remedy is thus made on the phase in the six-phase table in which the condition is classiﬁed, and on which part of the Auto-regulatory system or the Ground regulation system will need support.
By introducing the vicariation principle into antihomotoxic therapy, Reckeweg pointed out the dynamics of every disease and/or recovery process. The interrelationships which exist between a bio-system and the damaging homotoxins vary continuously during an illness and during the recovery process. The purposeful, self-regulatory forces of the organism usually are retained during illnesses up to and including phases of the six-phase table of homotoxicosis. In contrast, after the Biological Division is crossed, from phase 4 onward, self-regulation and self-recovery is practically no longer possible for the organism. In this case a therapeutic treatment is required to achieve recovery. Following regressive vicariation, a disease often enters phase 2 or 3. This typically requires a change of the antihomotoxic preparation because in phase 2 a symptomatically indicated acute remedy is usually necessary. In phases 2 and 3, which belong to the humoral phases, the self- regulatory capacity of the organism is still present, so that only stimulative medication is required to initiate inﬂammatory mechanisms, particularly in the matrix. Usually the excretion of the disease occurs via the skin or the mucous membranes. Increased perspiration, sputum, strong formation of urine, light diarrhea and fever are welcome signs of a shift out of the cellular disease phases which indicates an improvement of the basic illness. In the acute phases 1 and 2, composita preparations such as Traumeel or certain Homaccords are preferable.
Homeopathic remedies prepared in solid form are in most cases mixed with milk sugar (lactose) and then formed into tablets. Tablets should be placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve gradually without chewing. This permits the active ingredients to be absorbed through the buccal lining of the mouth, thereby evading the stomach where gastric juices might destroy or inactivate the remedy.
Oral drops and oral vials
Liquid homeopathic mediciations should be retained in the mouth long enough for their contents to be absorbed by the mouth’s buccal lining. As with tablets, the goal is to avoid the stomach’s juices which can inactivate the remedy. Therefore, liquids should not be simply swallowed.
Ointments and gels
Topical preparations offer a direct application to the affected area. Ointments and gels may be applied generously, as necessary, by rubbing gently into the skin.
Homeopathic nasal sprays are not associated with side effects or the risk of habituation. To thoroughly coat the nasal membranes, inhale deeply through each nostril after application.
Suppositories offer an alternate route of administration for persons unable to take medications orally.
For comfort in administering, warm the liquid by holding the vial in a closed hand for one minute.
Homeopathic eye drops are safe for wearers of contact lenses.
Homeopathic cough syrups help promote expectoration to shorten the duration of the cough.
Injection solution (Rx)
The injection solution offers doctors the ability to inject medication directly into the affected area. Remedies are contained in vials and diluted in an isotonic sodium chloride solution base.